Book Of The Dead Chapter 125 VideoEgyptian Book of the Dead: Becoming the Phoenix
Let not injury be inflicted upon me,--but let me be--clothed on the day of those who go forward? I have stood up over thee when thou didst rise like a god.
I have seen thee, and I have not lain down in death; I have stood over thee, and I have risen like a god. I have cackled like a goose, and I have alighted like a hawk by the divine clouds and by the great dew.
I have journeyed from the earth to heaven. The god Shu--made--me to stand up, the god of Light hath made me to be vigorous by the two sides of the ladder, and the stars which never rest set--me--on--my--way and bring--me--away from slaughter.
I bring along with me the things which drive back calamities as I advance over the passage of the god Pen; thou comest, how great art thou, O god Pen!
I have come from the Pool of Flame which is in. Hail, thou god Kaa, who dost bring those things which are in the boats by the.
I stand up in the boat and I guide myself--over--the water: I have stood up in the boat and the god hath guided me. I have stood up. I sail round about as I go forward, and the gates which are in Sekhem--Letopolis--are opened unto me, and fields are awarded unto me in the city of Unni--Hermopolis--, and laborers?
The chapter of protecting the boat of Ra. Hail, Ra, in thy name of Ra, if thou dost pass by those who are overturned in death, then verily do thou make the Osiris, Nu, triumphant, the perfect soul, to stand up upon his feet, and may thy strength be his strength.
Hail, Ra, in thy name of Ra, if the hidden things of the underworld are opened unto thee and thou dost gratify? Thy members, O Ra, are established by--this--Chapter?
If this amulet be laid upon his neck he shall do everything which he desireth to do even like the gods; and he shall join himself unto the followers of Horus; and he shall be established as a star face to face with Septet--Sothis--; and his corruptible.
The things which are an abomination unto thee and the things which are an abomination unto me I will not eat, that which is an abomination unto me, that which is an abomination unto me is filth and I will not eat thereof; but sepulchral offerings and holy food--will I eat--, and I shall not be overthrown thereby.
I will not draw nigh unto filth with my hands, and I will not walk thereon with my sandals, because my bread--is made--of white barley, and.
Hymns of praise be to thee. O Ur-arit-s, as thou travellest through heaven! Let there be food--for thee--, O dweller in the city of Teni--this--, and when the dogs gather together let me not suffer harm.
I myself have come, and I have delivered the god from the things which have been inflicted upon him, and from the grievous sickness of the body of the arm, and of the leg.
I have come and I have spit upon the body, I have bound up the arm, and I have made the leg to walk.
The chapter of knowing the souls of the east. I am he who is concerned with the tackle? I, even I, know the Sektet-Aarru of Ra, the walls of which are of iron.
The height of the wheat therein is five cubits, of the cars thereof two cubits, and the stalks thereof three cubits.
The barley therein is--in height--seven cubits, the ears thereof are three cubits, and the stalks thereof are four cubits. And behold, the Khus, each one of whom therein is nine cubits in height, reap is near the divine Souls of the East.
A divine city hath been built for me, I know it, and I know the name thereof; 'Sekhet-Aarru' is its name. Behold the scribe and artist of the Temple of Ptah, Nebseni, who saith:.
Behold me now, for I make this mighty boat to travel over the Lake of Hetep, and I brought it away with might from the palace of Shu; the domain of his stars groweth young and reneweth its former strength.
I have brought the boat into the lakes thereof so that I may come forth into the cities thereof, and I have sailed into their divine city Hetep.
And behold, it is because I, even I, am at Peace with his seasons, and with. He maketh the two divine fighters--i.
He cutteth off the hair from the divine fighters, be driveth away storm from the helpless, and he keepeth harm from the Khus. Let me gain dominion within that Field, for I know it, and I have sailed among its lakes so that I might come into the cities.
My mouth is strong; and I am equipped--with weapons to use--against the Khus; let them not have dominion over me.
Let me be rewarded with thy fields, O thou a god Hetep; that which is thy wish, shalt thou do, O lord of the winds. May I become a khu therein, may I eat therein, may I drink therein, may I plough therein, may I reap therein, may I fight therein, may I make love therein, may my words be mighty therein, may I never be in a state of servitude therein, but may I be in authority therein.
Thou hast made strong? He is established upon the watery supports. He is the divider of years, he is hidden of mouth, his mouth is silent, that which he uttereth is secret, he fulfilleth eternity and taketh possession of everlastingness of existence as Hetep, the lord Hetep.
The god Horus maketh himself to be strong like unto the Hawk which is one thousand cubits in length and two thousand--cubits in width--in life; he hath equipments with him, and he journeyeth on and cometh where the seat of his heart wisheth in the Pools thereof and in the cities thereof.
He was begotten in the birth-chamber of the god of the city, he hath offerings--made unto him--of the food of the god of the city, he performeth that which is meet to do therein, and the union thereof, in the matter of everything of the birth-chamber of the divine city.
When--he--setteth in life like crystal he performeth everything therein, and these things are like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are all manner of evil things.
The god Hetep goeth in, and cometh out, and goeth backward--in--that, Field that gathereth together all manner of things for the birth-chamber of the god of the city.
When he setteth in life like crystal he performeth all manner. May I gain the mastery over the great and mighty word which is in my body in this my place, and by it I will remember and I will forget.
Let me go forward in my journey, and let me plough. I exist therein, I am strong therein, I become a khu therein, I eat therein, I sow seed therein, I reap the harvest therein, I plough therein, I make love therein, I am at peace with the god Hetep therein.
Behold I scatter seed therein, I sail about among its lakes and I come forward to the cities thereof, O divine Hetep.
Behold my mouth is equipped with thy horns--for teeth--, grant me an overflowing supply of the food whereon the kas and.
I have passed the judgment of Shu upon him that knoweth him, so that I may go forth to the cities thereof, and may sail about among its lakes and may walk about in Sekhet-hetep; and behold, Ra is in heaven, and behold, the god Hetep is its double offering.
I have come onward to its land, I have put on my girdle? I have laid hold upon my strength which the god Hetep hath greatly increased for me.
Make thou me to be at peace, bind thou up my sinews and muscles, and make me to receive the air. O Un en -em-hetep, thou Lady of the winds, I have entered into thee and I have opened--i.
Obstacles have been set before me, but I have gathered together what he hath emitted. I am in my city. O Uakh, I have entered into thee, I have eaten my bread, I have gotten the mastery over choice pieces of the flesh of oxen and of feathered fowl, and the birds of Shu have been given unto me; I follow after the gods and--I come after--the divine kas.
I array myself in apparel, and I gird myself with the sa garment of Ra; now behold,--he is--in heaven and those who dwell therein follow Ra, and--I--follow Ra in heaven.
O Unen-em-hetep, lord of the two lands, I have entered into thee, and I have plunged into the lakes of Tchesert; behold me, for all filth hath departed from me.
The Great God groweth therein, and behold, I have found--food therein--; I have. I have caught the worms and serpents, and I am delivered.
And I know the name of the god who is opposite to the goddess Tchesert, and who hath straight hair and is equipped with two horns; he reapeth, and I both plough and reap.
O Hast, I have entered in to thee, I have driven back those who would come to the turquoise--sky--, and I have followed the winds of the company of the gods.
The Great God hath given my head unto me, and he who hath bound on me my head is the Mighty one who hath turquoise?
My heart watcheth, my head is equipped with the white crown, I am led into celestial regions, and I make to flourish terrestrial objects, and there is joy of heart for the.
I am the god who is the Bull, the lord of the gods, as he goeth forth from the turquoise--sky O divine nome of wheat and barley, I have come into thee, I have come forward to thee and I have taken up that which followeth me, namely the best of the libations of the company of the gods.
I have tied up my boat in the celestial lakes, I have lifted up the post at which to anchor, I have recited the prescribed words with my voice, and I have ascribed praise unto the gods who dwell in Sekhet-hetep.
Another chapter of knowing the souls of Pe. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:. I, even I, know though ye knoweth it not.
Then Ra said to Horus, 'Look at that black pig,' and he looked, and straightway an injury was done unto his eye,--namely--, a mighty storm--took place Then said Horus unto Ra, 'Verily, my eye seems as if it were an eye upon which Suti had inflicted a blow';--and thus saying--he ate his heart.
Then said Ra unto those gods, 'The pig is an abominable thing unto Horus; oh, but he shall do well although the pig is an abomination unto him.
Then said Horus to Ra, 'Give me two divine brethren in the. The chapter of making the transformation into a swallow. I am the scorpion, the daughter of Ra.
Hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet; hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet I --Hail--, Flame, which cometh forth from the horizon!
Hail, thou who art in the city, I have brought the Warden of his Bight therein. Oh, stretch out unto me thy hand so that I may be able to pass my days in the Pool of Double Fire, and let me advance with my message, for I have come with words to tell.
Oh, open--thou--the doors to me and I will declare the things which have been seen by me. Horus hath become the divine Prince.
I have made a computation of what is in the city of Sekhem, I have stretched out both my hands and arms at the word? I enter in,--I--am-judged, and--I--come forth worthy at the gate of Neb-er-tcher.
I am pure at the great place of the passage of souls, I have done away with my sins, I have put away mine offences, and I have destroyed the evil which appertained unto my members upon earth.
Hail, ye divine beings who guard the doors, make ye for me a way, for, behold, I am like unto you. I have come forth by day, I have journeyed on, on my legs, and I have gained the mastery over my footsteps--before--the God of Light, I know the hidden ways and the doors of the Sekhet-Aaru, verily I, even I, have come.
I have overthrown mine enemies upon earth, and yet my perishable body is in the gravel". If this chapter be known--by the deceased--he shall come forth by day, he shall not be turned back.
The chapter of making the transformation into a lotus. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, saith:. I enter in, and I come forth from the 15 Tank of Flame on the day when the adversaries are annihilated at Sechem.
I am the Priest 17 in Tattu and exalt him who is on the Height. I am he who seeth what is shut up at Restau. I am the Sem-priest in all that pertaineth to his office.
I am the Arch-Craftsman, on the day in which the Ship of Sokaru is laid upon its stocks. O ye who give bread and beer to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, do you give bread and beer at the two periods to the soul of iVwho is with you.
O ye who unclose the ways and open the roads to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, unclose then the ways and open the roads to the soul of N who is with you, let him enter boldly and come forth in peace at the house of Osiris, without hindrance and without repulse.
Let him enter at his pleasure and go forth at his will, triumphantly with you ; and let that be executed which he shall order in the house of Osiris.
No lightness of his in the scale has been found and the Balance is 23 relieved of his case. Papyrus in the British Museum. The text taken for the basis of the translation of Chapter i is that of the papyrus of Huneferu ; Ag of M.
The title here translated is that usual in all the papyri representing the third period of the text. It occurs however in the papyrus Ag of Huneferu, who lived in the days of Seti I, at the beginning of the XlXth dynasty.
It is also found in the papyrus of Ani. Chapter bears the same title in the older manuscripts, which sometimes begin with it. These are two very difficult words, and very different meanings have been assigned to them.
But when the entire evidence is examined the result is plain enough. The 'raising up' or 'resurrection' here spoken of is said not only of the soul but of the body of the deceased person.
The papyrus of Nebseni has preserved two chapters, to which M. Naville has assigned the numbers and Chapter of raising 2ip the body, of giving it eyes a fid the possession of ears, and establishing the head, made firtn on its props.
There are numerous pictures in the tombs representing priests performing this office. Deveria has produced excellent evidence showing that ci Jiiadt-heru has the sense of ' victorious, triumphant.
Bonomi's article , and in no Egyptian text is it used of mortals supposed to be living. The translation "juste de voix," limits the conception of viadt to one of its secondary acceptations.
Nothing is more common than this particle followed only by a proper name, e. There is not the slightest reason for supposing that there is an ellipse of the verb ' saith.
Instead of looking out for moods and tenses and paradigms, Egyptologists ought to wake to the consciousness that the Egyptians never rose to the conception of what we mean by a verb.
Bull, like Lion or Hawk, was one of the figurative names of gods or kings, and Osiris is sometimes represented with a Bull's head. This word is often wrongly translated 'judges.
The sfbmi are the enemies of the Sjtn, either as Ra or Osiris. I believe that under this mythological name the dark clouds are personified.
It must be remembered however that many of the geographical localities named in the Book of the Dead have their counterparts in the Egyptian heaven.
The mourners and weepers alluded to are chiefly Isis and Nephthys. Teshtesh is one of the names of Osiris; perhaps, as might be inferred from a text at Dendera, of his molten image.
The god "whose heart is motionless" is Osiris. Its situation is specified in Chapter 17, line Letopolis, where the arm of Osiris had been de- posited, when the other limbs of the god were dispersed throughout the cities of Egypt.
The Tank of Flame, as may be inferred from the vignettes of the papyri, is where the sun rises or sets. Feast of the seventh day of the month.
It must never be forgotten when reading these texts that the Egyptian priests had divine titles, and that their ceremonies were dramatic, and symbolical of the acts performed by the gods.
The text here is hopelessly corrupt. The translation given follows Ag. One might translate the Turin text, " I lustrate with water in Tattu and with oil in Abydos, exalting him who is in the heights in excelsls ," for this text com- bines different readings.
But n as it is written, may have another meaning. Max Miiller in behalf of this reading of ihe priestly name is quite convincing. T and the causative 1 furnish the sense, 'I make bright, illustrious, glorious,' ' I celebrate or glorify.
One of the designations of Osiris. Some have cleverly inferred that the Egyptians thought that the soul was of a birdlike form, and others have not hesitated to consider ba as expressive of the cry of the ram.
The truth is that in spite of appearances the word ba is not onomatopoeic here. Whether applied to the ram or to the heron, the word is expressive of human action and signifies 'digging through, cleaving, piercing, splitting.
The Ram is called in Egyptian ba on account of the digs which he makes with his head, and a force which has occasioned the name of ' ram ' to be given to powerful engines.
And the word which we translate Soul or Spirit is called Im, because it is conceived as something which 'pierces, penetrates and divides.
The latter, who held perhaps the highest sacerdotal office in Egypt, as high priest of Ptah at Memphis, is repeatedly found combining with his own special office that of the seftt.
Sokaru signifies ' the coffined,' and Ptah Sokaru is only a form of Osiris. Abundant details of the ceremony will be found in the plates of M.
Mariette's Abydos, I, pi. The king Seti I is represented as a Sem priest presiding at the festival. Or 'rid of his business. The deceased asks, among other things, to appear " before thee, O Lord of the gods, to attain the region of Madt, may I rise up a living god, let me shine like the divine host which is in heaven, let me be as one of you.
Let my steps be lifted up in Cher-abaut. Let the Cher-heb [the priestly ministrant] make invocation over my coffin. Let me hear the prayers of propitiation.
Let the divine ship Neshemet advance for me, let not my soul and its possessor suffer repulse. Let me be a follower of Horus in Re-stau, and of Osiris in Tattu.
And there shall be given to him bread and beer and flesh meat upon the table of Ra: Naville's edition by another, which the learned editor calls i B.
This chapter is found in so very few copies that the text cannot as yet be restored. The two texts published by M.
Naville differ widely from each other. It was known however down to the Roman period, though not inserted into copies of the Book of the Dead.
It is called Chapter of ititrodvcing the Mvmmy into the Tuat on the day of burial. The th chapter bears a similar title.
The word here translated mummy is probably not to be understood of the visible mummy, but of tiie living personality which it enclosed. I I who live upon the flesh of men and swallow their blood.
The chapter finished with prayers in which the deceased identifies himself with Horus, who has taken possession of the throne which his father has given him ; he has taken possession of heaven, and inherited the earth, and neither heaven nor earth shall be taken from him, for he is Ra, the eldest of the gods.
His mother suckles him and offers him her breast, which is on the horizon at Dawn. Chapter for Coining forth by day and Living after death.
Oh thou Only One, i who shinest from the Moon, let me come forth amid that train 2 of thine, at large, 3 and let me be revealed 4 as one of those in glory.
This chapter occurs in only two of the ancient MSS. I 'unicus,' the Sole and Only One, is one of the many.
Another chapter like it. Oh Tmu, who proceedest from Ur-henhenu, i who art resplen- dent as the Lion-faced, 2 and who strewest thy words to those who are before thee ; Here cometh the faithful N, from the band of those who do the bidding of thy words.
As Ra is bom from Yesterday, so he too is born from Yesterday, and as every god exulteth in life, so shall N exult even as they exult in life. The two notions, however, are found in combination in the Pyramid texts of Unas 1.
See note 8 on Chapter i. It is I who travel on the Stream i which divideth the divine Pair, 2 I am come, let there be given to me the lands of Osiris.
This fourth chapter has not as yet been found in any of the papyri of the best period. See Chapter 61, and F.
He saith, I am he who raiseth the hand which is motionless, and I come forth at the hour. This chapter is found in several of the best MSS. The Turin text differs greatly from that of the older copies, and the transposition of words clearly shows how little the transcribers under- stood what they were writing.
I follow chiefly the text of Aa, the papyrus of Nebseni. These words only occur in the later copies. The ' living Soul ' is that of the Sun, whether he is called Ra or Osiris.
I do not know how far it is correct to illustrate this undoubted origin of the Egyptian name for the Ape, as ' the saluting one,' by the following extract of a letter to Cuvier from M.
Duvaucelle, about the Siamang apes in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen in Sumatra. This is the morning call of the mountain Malays, but to the inhabitants of the town, who are unaccustomed to it, it is a most insupportable annoyance.
They it is who light him on both sides, and go forth in advance of him And when he arises they turn into six cynocephali.
But if the scribe had consulted the oldest texts accessible in his day, he would probably have seen another way out. It is the technical term used in the Tablet of Canopus for the inducting, by the king, of priests into their offices.
And it is easy to see how the later text, which is already found in Ax, has been corrupted out of the older. Chapter whereby the fimereal Statuettes may be made to do ivork for a person i?
O Statuette i there! Should I be called and appointed to do any of the labours that are done in the Netherworld by a person according to his abilities, lo!
Here am I, whithersoever thou callest me. This chapter is inscribed on the funereal statuettes, of which enormous quantities are found ; sometimes by hundreds in the neighbourhood of a single mummy.
Much information on the subject, both archaeological and philological, will be found in Mariette's Catalogue General des Momunents d'Abydos, p.
Loret's articles "Les Statuettes. But there is no reason for supposing that the earlier form had the same meaning. Chapter of passing through the chine of Apepi which is void.
Oh, One of Wax, i who takest captive and seizest with violence, and livest upon those who are motionless! Let me not become motionless before thee, let me not be paralysed before thee, let not thy venoms enter into my limbs, for my limbs are the limbs of Tmu.
And if thou wouldst not be paralysed, let me not be paralysed. Let not thy languors enter these limbs of mine.
I am the One who presideth over the pole of Heaven, and the powers of all the gods are my powers. I am he, whose names are hidden, and whose abodes are mysterious for all eternity.
It is I who proceed from Tmu, and I am safe and sound. Apepi is the personification of the storm-cloud and, as such, is the enemy of Ra, by whom he is vanquished.
As representing a natural phenomenon of irregular occurrence, he is not deified like Sutu, the Darkness of Night.
The chapter itself was said over a wax figure of the demon. These wax figures of gods and other personages were used not only for ritual but for unlawful magical purposes.
The Rollin papyrus reports about a criminal condemned to death for magical arts. The more recent texts omit this ending and substitute, " I know, I know.
Chapter of openmg the Tuat by day. The Hour i discloseth what the head of Thoth keepeth close, who giveth might to the Eye of Horus. I am that Osiris, the Lord of Amenta, and Osiris knoweth his day, and that it is in his lot that he should end his being, and be no more.
Stay, Horus, for he is counted among the gods. See note on Chapter 17, It must be sufficient here to say that Thoth is a personification of the moon, and that the relations of solar and lunar phenomena are the sources of a great deal of Egyptian mythology.
This is one of the most difficult passages in the Book of the Dead, but I do not see how it can be grammatically understood otherwise.
It is understood from the passage from Light to Darkness and the converse. We should think rather of such phrases as ' annum f perficere,' ' sole perfecto.
Soul most mighty, i here am I: I am come to thee that I may see thee. I am he whom he loveth. I have come to see my father Osiris, to pierce the heart of Sutu, and to perform all duties to my father Osiris.
I open all the paths in heaven and upon earth. I am the son who loveth his father, and I am come as a mummied one, glorious and well equipt.
Oh, all ye gods and goddesses, the path is made for me. The whole chapter is spoken in the person of Horus, the son of Osiris.
I come forth victoriously against the adversaries. I cleave the heaven, I open the horizon and I travel over the earth on foot.
There come forward to me the Glorious and the Great ones, for I am furnished with numberless Words of Might. I eat with my mouth, and I chew with my jaw ; for, lo, I worship the god who is Lord of the Tuat, and that is given to me which endureth amid overthrow.
Chapter for coming out against the adversary in the Netherworld. Here is the Osiris N. Eater of his arm: I have stretched out my hand, as the Lord of the Crown, and lifted my feet.
I shall not be given up ; my adversary shall fall before me ; he hath been given up to me and shall not be delivered from me.
I walk upon my feet, I speak with my mouth, searching for him who hath been given up to me ; he shall not be delivered from me.
There is unfortunately no early text of this chapter, which we have in a very corrupt form, and can only restore conjecturally.
The Eater of his arm is evidently Darkness, which is destroyed by the Sun. Chapter for entering and for coming forth out of the Netherworld. Salutation to thee, O Ra, who guardest the secrets of the gates i over this domain of Seb, and this Balance with which Ra raiseth up Maat 2 daily: Here am I, who cleave open 3 the earth, grant that I may come and acquire advance in age.
This chapter, like the next, occurs only in Pa among the older MSS. It comes twice in the Turin copy, being repeated as Chapter So Pa ; the Turin copy has 'the Tuat.
In many places it is important to treat Maat as a proper name. See note 20, p. Chapter for entering after coming out from Amenta.
I enter as a Hawk and come forth as a Bennu i at Dawn. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Ra at the fair Amenta, and the locks 2 of Osiris.
I urge on the hounds of Horus. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Osiris, the Lord of Life. This chapter, in the MSS. The Bennu is a bird of the Heron kind.
He is very com- monly but, I think, erroneously identified with the Phoenix. The bird described by Herodotus, H, 73, was in outline and size "very like an eagle," which no one could say of the Bennu.
He appeared only once in five hundred years, whereas the Bennu appeared every day. The fable as told by the Greeks is utterly unsupported by any Egyptian authority known to us.
This passage is, unfortunately, both in the ancient and the recent forms, corrupt. Hail to thee, oh god who sendest forth i the Moment, who presidest over all the Secret things 2 , and protectest the utterance of my words.
Here 3 is a god displeased against me ; let wrong be over- whelmed and let it fall upon the hands of the Lord of Law, Remove 4 the impediments which are in me and the evil and the darkness 5 , oh Lord of Law, and let that god be reconciled to me, removing that which detaineth me from thee.
Oh, lord of offerings in Kenu 6 , let me offer to thee the propitiary offering by which thou livest, and let me live by it and be reconciled.
Let all the displeasure which is in thy heart against me be removed. There is a very great difference between the earlier and the later texts of this chapter.
The Lord of Law is in the singular, but the imperative ' remove ' is in the plural. It is susceptible of different meanings. Adored he Ra, when he riseth up from the eastern Jiorhon of Heaven ; they who accompany him extol him.
Here is the Osiris N, the Victorious, and he saith: Let the soul of N come forth with thee into heaven, let him journey in the Maatit boat and finish his course in the Sektit boat 2 till he reach in heaven unto the Stars which set 3.
Thoth abideth at the prow of thy bark that he may destroy all thine adversaries. They who dwell in the Tuat are coming forth to meet thy Majesty, and to gaze upon that beautiful semblance of thine.
And I too come to thee that I may be with thee to see thine Orb each day ; let me not be detained, let me not be repulsed.
Let my limbs be renewed by the contemplation of thy glories, like all thy servants, for I am one of those who honoured thee upon earth.
Let me reach the Land of Ages, let me gain the Land of Eternity ; for thou, my Lord, hast destined them for me. The Osiris N; he saith: And after being concealed from them thou presentest thyself at the dawn of each day.
Brisk is the bark under thy Majesty. Thy rays are upon men's faces ; the golden glories they cannot be told: The Lands of the gods, the colours of Punit 6 are seen in them ; that men may form an estimate of that which is hidden from their faces.
Alone art thou when thy form riseth up upon the Sky ; let me advance as thou advancest, like thy Majesty, without a pause, O Ra, whom none can outstrip.
A mighty march is thine ; Leagues by millions, and hundreds of thousands, in a small moment thou hast travelled them, and thou goest to rest.
Thou completest the hours of the Night, according as thou hast measured them out. And when thou hast completed them accord- ing to thy rule, day dawneth.
Thou presentest thyself at thy place as Ra, as thou risest from the Horizon. The Osiris N, he saith, as he adoreth thee when thou shinest ; He saith to thee when thou risest up at dawn, as he exalteth thine appearance ; Thou comest forth, most glorious one, fashioning and forming thy limbs, giving birth to them without any labour, as Ra rising in heaven.
And when thou turnest thy face to the West, mine hands are in adoration to thy setting as one who liveth ;t for it is thou who hast created Eternity.
I have set thee in my heart unceasingly, who art more mighty than all the gods. Thy mother bringeth thee forth upon her hands, that thou mayest give light to the whole cir- cumference which the Solar Orb enlightenelh.
Mighty Enlightener, who risest up in the Sky and raisest up the tribes of men by thy Stream, and givest holiday to all districts, towns and temples ; and raising food, nourishment and dainties.
Most Mighty one, master of masters, who defendest every abode of thine against wrong. Glorify thou the Osiris N in the Netherworld, grant that he may come into Amenta without defect and free from wrong, and set him among the faithful and venerable ones.
Here is the Osiris JV. Come forth into Heaven, sail across the firmament and enter into brotherhood with the Stars, let salutation be made to thee in the Bark, let invocation be made to thee in the Morning Bark.
Contemplate Ra within his Ark and do thou propitiate his Orb daily. See the Ant fish in its birth from the emerald stream, and see the Abtu fish and its rotations.
Ra springs forth with a fair wind ; the Evening Bark speeds on and reaches the Haven ; the crew of Ra are in exultation when they look upon him ; the Mistress of Life, her heart is delighted at the overthrow of the adversary of her Lord.
See thou Horus at the Look-out of the ship, 9 and at his sides Thoth and Maat. All the gods are in exultation when they behold Ra coming in peace to give new life to the hearts of the Chu, and here is the Osiris iV along with them.
Hail to thee, who comest in splendour, and goest round in thine Orb, Hail to thee, who art mightier than the gods, who art crowned in Heaven and King in the Tuat, Hail to thee, who openest the Tuat and disposest of all its doors.
Hail to thee, supreme among the gods, and Weigher of Words in the Netherworld. Hail to thee, who art in thy Nest, and stirrest the Tuat with thy glory.
Hail to thee, the Great, the Mighty, whose enemies are laid prostrate at their blocks, Hail to thee, who slaughterest the Sebau and annihilates!
By hurling harm against the foe thou hast utterly destroyed all the adversaries of the Osiris JV. Adoration to thee, O Ra: Adoration to thee, O Tmu, at thy coming in thy beauty, in thy manifestation, in thy mastery.
Thou sailest over the Heaven, thou travellest over earth and in splendour thou reachest the zenith ; the two divisions of Heaven are in obeisance to thee, and yield adoration to thee.
All the gods of Amenta are in exultation at thy glory. They whose abodes are hidden adore thee, and the Great Ones make offerings to thee, who for thee have created the soil of earth.
Let me be entrusted to the fidelity which is yielded to Osiris. Come, O Ra, Tmu, he thou adored. Do thy will daily.
Grant success in presence of the cycle of the mighty gods. Very terrible art thou, rich art thou in attributes, and great is thy love to those who dwell in the Tuat.
To be said, when Rd sets in the Land of Life ; with hands bent do7vnward. The Osiris N ; he saith: Her two hands receive thee daily. Thy Majesty hath part in the house of Sokaru.
Exult thou because the doors are opened of the Horizon, at thy setting in the Mountain of the West. Thy rays, they run over the earth to enlighten the dwellers in Amenta.
Those who are in the Tuat worship thee with loud acclaim, and cherish hope when they see thee daily. Thou grantest to the gods to sit upon the earth ; to those, namely, who follow thee and come in thy train.
O august Soul, who begettest the gods, and dost invest them with thine attributes ; the Unknowable, the Ancient One, the Mighty in thy mystery.
Be thy fair face propitious to the Osiris N, oh Chepera, Father of the gods Freedom for ever from perdition is derived through this Book, and upon it I take my firm stand.
He hath written it who spake it, and his heart resteth on the reward. Let there be given me armfuls of bread and drink, and let me be accompanied by this Book after my life.
It is in fact a collection of texts originally independent of each other ; i a hymn to Ra at his rising, 2 a litany, 3 a hymn to Ra at his setting, 4 a hymn to Tmu at his setting, followed by a statement respecting the spiritual importance of the document.
Of the last hymn there are no copies of ancient date, but the other three compositions are found more or less perfect as far back as the XlXth dynasty.
The discrepancies, however, between the ancient texts furnish so much evidence of free composition on the part of the scribes, that it is impossible to suppose that they had before them documents recognised as sacred and canonical.
Naville has found it necessar ' to publish four different forms of the hymn to the rising, and three of the hymn to the setting sun.
In the translation here given I have followed the form adopted by the later recension, correcting the text when necessary by the copies written in the better periods.
The text of the Papyrus of Ani has been taken as the basis of the translation of Hymn I. It is the only ancient text which gives the hymn in the form subsequently acknowledged as canonical.
They were what Horace called the "ignes mifwres. Both the Eastern and the Western horizon are mentioned in this chapter, but " Horus of the Two Horizons," has no reference to this distinction.
Whatever the Sun passes through or over is always conceived as double. The Tn'o Earths imply simply the Earth as divided by the passage of the Sun above it.
It is to M. It cannot be used for plants, as they have an origin in something external to themselves. The Land of the Gods a.
Funit dive ihe countries lying east of Egypt. When it is said that gods ' come from Punit,' it is not meant by this that they are of Arabian origin, but simply that Sun ISIoon, and Stars, and Daylight rise in the East.
Is this an oversight on the part of the scribe, or is it one more proof that the Egyptians certainly believed in a sky below the horizon? If so, I have never seen it misplaced.
The Ant and the Abtu are sometimes represented by the side of the solar bark. From the egg of the Abtu there rises the great Cat, the Sun. It is, as M.
In some texts, e. In the later part of the Ani Papyrus it is written with the initial 'V' j. This interesting variant is of extreme value. It not only explains a word, the very existence of which has been called in question, but tells us the Egyptian name for that seat of Horus at the prow of the Solar Bark about which I wrote a note in Proc.
See the plates attached to the note, and the corresponding vignettes in Todtenbuch, PI. The Litany here translated is that of the Turin Todtenbuch.
It is addressed to " Osiris, the everlasting Lord, Unneferu, Horus of the Two Horizons, of many forms and mighty of attributes.
Hail to thee, An in An. Horus in the Two Horizons, who extendeth his steps and traverseth the Heaven ; he is Horchuta ; Hail to thee, eternal Soul, Soul which is in Tattu, Unneferu, Son of Nut ; he is Lord of Acherta ; Hail to thee, as thou reignest in Tattu, the royal crown is fixed upon thy brow.
Thou art the Only One, the author of his own attributes, thou restest in Tattu ; Hail to thee. Thou art the Lord of Suten-henen ; Hail to thee, who restest upon Maat ; Thou art the Lord of Abydos, thy limbs reach to Ta-tsert ; Thou art he who abominatest wrong ; Hail to thee, in the midst of thy Bark, who bringest the Nile from his fountain ; upon whose dead body the light shineth ; he is the One who is in Nechen ; Hail to thee, author of the gods, King of North and South, Osiris, the triumphant one, possessing the entire universe in his bene- ficent alternations ; He is the Lord of the Universe ; Grant me passage in peace.
I am righteous, I speak not falsehood knowingly, I am not guilty of duplicity. Unfortunately we have no other copy to check the readings. But it is certain that the sign of plurality is often affixed to words which though in plural form like the Latin nioeiiia, literae, tciiebrae have a singular meaning.
Chabasu means a lamp, and the stars, especially the decans, were called by this appellation. Hamiiieinit is the name given to those yet unborn.
And, like the Greek atukXo? This circle is not necessarily of gods. Whence in this relation arises the Egyptian conception of the number nine?
Is it the round we should say the 'square' number, three times three? It certainly is merely a round number in many instances, but what is still more certain is that the same expression meaning ' circle of gods ' and ' nine gods,' the circle was supposed to consist of nine gods, and was enlarged to companies of eighteen or twenty-seven.
The Turin text seems better adapted for the basis of a trans- lation of Hymn II than the older papyri. These have been used for checking the later text whenever possible.
A difficult passage, but the readings are unanimous. Brugsch translates it " the Talisman of the Earth," and Pierret "le salut de la terre.
But we have to look at the entire context. The expression literally signifies " the back of the earth.
The Turin text has Nut, which is inconsistent with what follows. See the inscriptions in Mariette's Abydos, I, pi.
Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, seems to be here addressed. This rubric does not occur in the older MSS. Goodwin took it up, and it has since been productive of much mischief.
The word in itself like Triad , is perfectly innocent and correct, yet every word has its ' cycle ' of associations, and some of them lead the unwary astray.
I had just been lecturing on Plotinus when Goodwin asked me for the word. This hymn has not yet been found in the older MSS.
A text carefully corrected from the papyri of the Louvre will be found in M. They are not meant to imply that ' father of the gods ' was the special attribute of Chepera.
As in mathematics any point in space may be conceived as the origin of a given line or surface, so in Egyptian mythology any god may be rightly called the father of the gods.
And for the same reason. The Day precedes the Night, but not more truly than Night precedes, or in mythological language gives birth to Day.
But we may begin at Daybreak, or at Noon, or at Sunset, or with the Sun or the Moon, or with the rising of the Nile or any other natural phenomenon which obeys an evidently permanent fixed Law.
When Lepsius divided the Todtetihuch into chapters, that portion of it which was numbered as Chapter 16, was in fact merely the Vignette of Chapter In a the Sun is represented as rising into Heaven, saluted by the six Cynocephalous Apes.
He is also saluted by two goddesses kneeling. In the later periods the Dawn was represented by the sign j I'Tj consisting of the Sun rising out of the East, between Isis and Nephthys.
In b the central object is the Sun setting in the West w- He is saluted by three hawk-headed and by three jackal-headed divinities, the Spirits of Pu and of Nechen.
Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day out of the Netherworld. I am he who closeth and he who openeth, and I am but One 1. I am Ra at his first appearance.
I am the great god, self-produced ; His Names together compose the cycle of the gods ; Resistless is he among the gods.
I know the name of the great god who is here. I am the great Heron who is in Heliopolis, who presideth over the account of whatsoever is and of that which cometh into being.
Endless Time is Day and Eternity is Night. I am Amsu in his manifestations ; there have been given to me the Two Feathers upon my head. It is Horus, the avenger of his father, and the Two Peathers are the Urasi upon the forehead of his father Tmu.
It is the Horizon of my father Tmu. All defects are done away, all deficiencies are removed, and all that was wrong in me is cast forth. I am purified at the two great and mighty Lakes at Sutenhunen, which purify the offerings which living men present to the great god who is there 8.
It is Ri himself. The Lake of Natron and the Lake of Maat 9. I advance over the roads, which I know, and my face is on the Land of Maat.
The road upon which father Tmu advanceth, when he goeth to the Field of Aarru, approaching to the land of Spirits in Heaven.
I come forth through the Teser gate. This gate of the gods is Haukar. It is the gate and the two doors and openings, through which father Tmu issueth to the Eastern Horizon of Heaven.
Let me grasp your hands, me who become one of you. Those who have gone before are Hu and Sau. May I be with their father Tmu, throughout the course of each day.
The battle of the two Opponents is the day upon which Horus fighteth with Sut, when he flingeth his filth upon the face of Horus, and when Horus seizeth upon the genitals of Sut, for it is Horus who doeth this with his own fijigers.
I lift up the hairy net from the Eye at the period of its distress. The right Eye of Ka in the period of its distress when he giveth it free course, and it is Thoth who lifteth up the net from it.
I see Ra, when he is born from Yesterday, at the dugs of the Mehurit cows? Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name.
If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life. Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".
This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.
For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.
A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.
They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver,  perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.
In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.
Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner's wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.
The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m. The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.
The words peret em heru , or 'coming forth by day' sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label.
Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later.
The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.
The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines — a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments.
Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.
From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up.
Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic. The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script.
Most of the text was in black, with red ink used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep.
The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. Some contain lavish colour illustrations, even making use of gold leaf.
Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening. Book of the Dead papyri were often the work of several different scribes and artists whose work was literally pasted together.
The existence of the Book of the Dead was known as early as the Middle Ages, well before its contents could be understood.
Since it was found in tombs, it was evidently a document of a religious nature, and this led to the widespread misapprehension that the Book of the Dead was the equivalent of a Bible or Qur'an.
In Karl Richard Lepsius published a translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name " Book of The Dead" das Todtenbuch.
He also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying different spells. The work of E. Wallis Budge , Birch's successor at the British Museum, is still in wide circulation — including both his hieroglyphic editions and his English translations of the Papyrus of Ani , though the latter are now considered inaccurate and out-of-date.
Allen and Raymond O. Orientverlag has released another series of related monographs, Totenbuchtexte , focused on analysis, synoptic comparison, and textual criticism.
Research work on the Book of the Dead has always posed technical difficulties thanks to the need to copy very long hieroglyphic texts.
Initially, these were copied out by hand, with the assistance either of tracing paper or a camera lucida. In the midth century, hieroglyphic fonts became available and made lithographic reproduction of manuscripts more feasible.
In the present day, hieroglyphics can be rendered in desktop publishing software and this, combined with digital print technology, means that the costs of publishing a Book of the Dead may be considerably reduced.
However, a very large amount of the source material in museums around the world remains unpublished.